PEAK ATP® is a clinically validated and patented form of adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP) disodium shown to improve body composition and athletic performance by increasing muscular excitability, blood flow, and recovery. * Steel Pump Peak Performance Pre-Workout contains 450 mg of PEAK ATP® per serving.
How Does Peak ATP® Work?For years, scientists were only aware of the function of ATP within the cell (intracellular). In the 1980s, a major breakthrough in ATP research was achieved when it was discovered that ATP has a major role outside the cell (extracellular) as well. Purinergic receptors that accept ATP are embedded in the plasma membrane of the cell. ATP acts as a signaling molecule directly upon these receptors, where it controls numerous metabolic reactions, including Muscular Excitability®, vasodilation, and anabolic signaling. * PEAK ATP® increases levels of extracellular ATP1,2 thereby it:
Boosts Muscular Excitability®*
- Calcium is the main stimulating agent telling muscles to contract.
- Extracellular ATP boosts levels of calcium and glucose within the cells. *
- When intracellular calcium levels rise, there is also an increase in the number of muscle filaments binding and the velocity at which these muscle filaments slide to create a contraction.
- These two factors directly impact muscle strength and power. *
- Extracellular ATP causes capillaries to synthesize and release nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). *
- Both of these substances are potent vasodilators and increase blood flow. *
- Increased blood flow facilitates the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the cells and the removal of metabolic waste, benefiting nearly every tissue in the body. *
Activates Anabolic Signaling*
- Protein is the building block of muscle. Therefore, to gain lean body mass and increase muscle thickness, the body needs to have sufficient amounts of protein available.
- ATP stimulates protein synthesis, helping build new muscle tissue. *
What is Muscular Excitability?Muscular Excitability® refers to the ability to activate muscle, thereby causing it to contract. The greater the excitability of the muscle, the greater its force, velocity, and endurance properties will be. Muscle is excited by the release of calcium into the cell, which serves as the trigger for contraction. PEAK ATP® works by increasing and sustaining the amount of calcium available to the muscle, which boosts muscular excitability. The result is the athlete will lift more weight and produce a greater number of repetitions per set.
ATP and Muscular FatigueWhen an athlete becomes fatigued, performance suffers. Everyone knows this is true, but why does it happen? Muscular fatigue is caused by a decrease in muscular excitability, or the muscle’s ability to respond rapidly to a stimulating agent telling the muscle to contract. That stimulating agent is calcium. Unfortunately, exercise depletes calcium from muscle cells, causing a decrease in muscular excitability and an increase in fatigue. In fact, a 50% decrease in calcium can result in an 80% reduction in force.3 The key to fighting muscular fatigue is to increase muscular excitability. Increases in muscular excitability lead to an increase in the intensity of muscle contractions.
Key Peak ATP® Benefits
Increase Total Strength by 147%An athlete will lift more weight and produce a greater number of repetitions per set with oral supplementation of PEAK ATP® versus placebo. Clinical Evidence
Increases Power by 30%PEAK ATP® causes significant increases in vertical jump power versus placebo. Clinical Evidence
Reduces Muscular FatiguePEAK ATP® improves muscular endurance, providing more benefits as more repetitions and sets are performed. Vasodilation and blood flow were higher following ATP supplementation, which would drive recovery processes. Clinical Evidence
Increases Lean Body Mass by 100%PEAK ATP® significantly increases lean body mass and muscle thickness over placebo.* Clinical Evidence
Improves Blood Flow Up to 54%PEAK ATP® supplementation increases the amount of ATP in red blood cells. When muscles are fatigued, red blood cells release ATP into the blood. The ATP binds to blood vessels and causes them to dilate. The end result is increased blood flow, oxygen delivery, and clearance of metabolic waste products such as lactate. Clinical Evidence
Enlarges Muscle Calcium PoolMuscle is excited by the release of calcium into the cell, which serves as the trigger for contraction. PEAK ATP® works by increasing and sustaining the amount of calcium in the cell. As a result, athletes can lift more weight and produce a greater number of repetitions per set. *4
Is Peak ATP® the Next Generation of NO?L-citrulline or L-arginine are amino acid precursors to nitric oxide and have been marketed as potential ergogenic aids based on their ability to increase blood flow to the exercising muscle. However, the daily dose needed to increase blood flow is high (6-24g) and the ergogenic response may depend on the training status and health of the subjects. Whereas some studies involving untrained or moderately healthy subjects showed that nitric oxide donors could improve tolerance to aerobic and anaerobic exercise, no significant improvements were measured in healthy or highly-trained subjects. In contrast, oral PEAK ATP® increases blood flow at mg doses and has been shown to increase lean body mass, strength and power in highly trained individuals. Therefore, oral 400mg/day ATP supplementation is an apparently efficacious method if the intent is increasing post-exercise blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery.
Who Benefits from PEAK ATP® Supplementation?
Serious Athletes, Strength Competitors, and BodybuildersAthletes of all kinds are always looking for something to give them a competitive edge — whether for increasing power, strength, and muscle mass, reducing fatigue, or improving recovery. PEAK ATP® does it all. * PEAK ATP® is acceptable for use in sports and is not banned by any athletic body.
Casual Athletes and Weekend WarriorsIncreasingly, everyday people trying to stay in shape are looking for supplements that can help them reap the most reward with the least effort. Because PEAK ATP® increases the work volume of a workout, it can help even the casual athlete or weekend warrior make the most of time spent exercising. *
Aging Adults and Those Wanting to Improve Body CompositionSarcopenia is the normal loss of approximately 1.5% of muscle mass every year after the age of 40. Exercise is the most powerful tool to counteract sarcopenia, and PEAK ATP® can help maximize the effects of exercise on muscle mass and strength.
- Kichenin K et al. Cardiovascular and pulmonary response to oral administration of ATP in rabbits. J. Appl. Physiol. 2000; 88:1962-1968
- Kichenin K, et al. Chronic Oral Administration of ATP Modulates Nucleoside Transport and Purine Metabolism in Rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap. 2000; 294:126-133.
- Zhang SJ et al. Limited oxygen diffusion accelerates fatigue development in mouse skeletal muscle. J Psysiol. 2006;572(2):551-9.
- Endo M. Calcium-induced calcium release in skeletal muscle. Physiol Rev. 2009, 89(4):1153-1176.